This tutorial shows the installation of an Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial Xerus) web hosting server with Apache2, Postfix, Dovecot, Bind and PureFTPD to prepare it for the installation of ISPConfig 3.1. The resulting system will provide a Web, Mail, Mailinglist, DNS and FTP Server.
ISPConfig 3 is a web hosting control panel that allows you to configure the following services through a web browser: Apache or nginx web server, Postfix mail server, Courier or Dovecot IMAP/POP3 server, MySQL, BIND or MyDNS nameserver, PureFTPd, SpamAssassin, ClamAV, and many more. This setup covers the installation of Apache (instead of Nginx), BIND (instead of MyDNS), and Dovecot (instead of Courier).
Notice: The ISPConfig 3.1 version that is used in this tutorial is currently in beta state. The ISPConfig old stable 3.0.5p9 version can not be used on Ubuntu 16.04 as it is not compatible with PHP 7.
1. Preliminary Note
In this tutorial, I use the hostname server1.example.com with the IP address 192.168.1.100 and the gateway 192.168.1.1 . These settings might differ for you, so you have to replace them where appropriate. Before proceeding further you need to have a basic minimal installation of Ubuntu 16.04 as explained in the tutorial.
2. Edit /etc/apt/sources.list And Update Your Linux Installation
Edit /etc/apt/sources.list. Comment out or remove the installation CD from the file and make sure that the universe and multiverse repositories are enabled. It should look like this afterwards:
## deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 16.04 LTS _Xenial Xerus_ - Release amd64 (20160420)]/ xenial main restricted#deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 16.04 LTS _Xenial Xerus_ - Release amd64 (20160420)]/ xenial main restricted# See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to# newer versions of the distribution.deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted# deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the## distribution.deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted# deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in## universe WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu security## team.deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial universe# deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial universedeb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe# deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu## security team.deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse# deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial multiversedeb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse# deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse# deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's## 'partner' repository.## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by Canonical and the## respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu users.# deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner# deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partnerdeb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security main restricted# deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security main restricteddeb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security universe# deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security universedeb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security multiverse# deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security multiverse
to update the apt package database and
to install the latest updates (if there are any). If you see that a new kernel gets installed as part of the updates, you should reboot the system afterwards:
3. Change the Default Shell
/bin/sh is a symlink to /bin/dash, however we need /bin/bash, not /bin/dash. Therefore, we do this:
Use dash as the default system shell (/bin/sh)? <– No
If you don’t do this, the ISPConfig installation will fail.
4. Disable AppArmor
AppArmor is a security extension (similar to SELinux) that should provide extended security. In my opinion, you don’t need it to configure a secure system, and it usually causes more problems than advantages (think of it after you have done a week of trouble-shooting because some service wasn’t working as expected, and then you find out that everything was ok, only AppArmor was causing the problem). Therefore, I disable it (this is a must if you want to install ISPConfig later on).
We can disable it like this:
service apparmor stopupdate-rc.d -f apparmor remove apt-get remove apparmor apparmor-utils
5. Synchronize the System Clock
It is a good idea to synchronize the system clock with an NTP (network time protocol) server over the Internet when you run a physical server. In case you run a virtual server then you should skip this step. Just run
apt-get -y install ntp ntpdate
and your system time will always be in sync.
6. Install Postfix, Dovecot, MariaDB, rkhunter and binutils
For installing postfix, we need to ensure that sendmail is not installed and running. To stop and remove sendmail run this command:
service sendmail stop; update-rc.d -f sendmail remove
The error message:
Failed to stop sendmail.service: Unit sendmail.service not loaded.
Is ok, it just means that sendmail was not installed, so there was nothing to be removed.
Now we can install Postfix, Dovecot, MariaDB (as MySQL replacement), rkhunter, and binutils with a single command:
apt-get install postfix postfix-mysql postfix-doc mariadb-client mariadb-server openssl getmail4 rkhunter binutils dovecot-imapd dovecot-pop3d dovecot-mysql dovecot-sieve dovecot-lmtpd sudo
You will be asked the following questions:
General type of mail configuration: <-- Internet SiteSystem mail name: <-- server1.example.com
It is important that you use a subdomain as “system mail name” like server1.example.com or server1.yourdomain.com and not a domain that you want to use as email domain (e.g. yourdomain.tld) later.
Next, open the TLS/SSL and submission ports in Postfix:
Uncomment the submission and smtps sections as follows – add the line -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject to both sections and leave everything thereafter commented:
[...] submission inet n - - - - smtpd -o syslog_name=postfix/submission -o smtpd_tls_security_level=encrypt -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject # -o smtpd_reject_unlisted_recipient=no # -o smtpd_client_restrictions=$mua_client_restrictions # -o smtpd_helo_restrictions=$mua_helo_restrictions # -o smtpd_sender_restrictions=$mua_sender_restrictions # -o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject # -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING smtps inet n - - - - smtpd -o syslog_name=postfix/smtps -o smtpd_tls_wrappermode=yes -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject # -o smtpd_reject_unlisted_recipient=no # -o smtpd_client_restrictions=$mua_client_restrictions # -o smtpd_helo_restrictions=$mua_helo_restrictions # -o smtpd_sender_restrictions=$mua_sender_restrictions # -o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject # -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING [...]
NOTE: The whitespaces in front of the “-o …. ” lines are important!
Restart Postfix afterward:
service postfix restart
We want MySQL to listen on all interfaces, not just localhost. Therefore, we edit /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/50-server.cnf and comment out the line bind-address = 127.0.0.1:
[...] # Instead of skip-networking the default is now to listen only on # localhost which is more compatible and is not less secure. #bind-address = 127.0.0.1 [...]
Now we set a root password in MariaDB. Run:
You will be asked these questions:
Enter current password for root (enter for none): <-- press enterSet root password? [Y/n] <-- yNew password: <-- Enter the new MariaDB root password hereRe-enter new password: <-- Repeat the passwordRemove anonymous users? [Y/n] <-- yDisallow root login remotely? [Y/n] <-- yReload privilege tables now? [Y/n] <-- y
Then we restart MariaDB:
service mysql restart
Now check that networking is enabled. Run
netstat -tap | grep mysql
The output should look like this:
root@server1:~# netstat -tap | grep mysqltcp6 0 0 [::]:mysql [::]:* LISTEN 5230/mysqldroot@server1:~#
7. Install Amavisd-new, SpamAssassin, and Clamav
To install amavisd-new, SpamAssassin, and ClamAV, we run
apt-get install amavisd-new spamassassin clamav clamav-daemon zoo unzip bzip2 arj nomarch lzop cabextract apt-listchanges libnet-ldap-perl libauthen-sasl-perl clamav-docs daemon libio-string-perl libio-socket-ssl-perl libnet-ident-perl zip libnet-dns-perl postgrey
Unable to install amavisd-new on Ubuntu 16.10
$myhostname = "....." and
The ISPConfig 3 setup uses amavisd which loads the SpamAssassin filter library internally, so we can stop SpamAssassin to free up some RAM:
service spamassassin stop update-rc.d -f spamassassin remove
Edit the clamd configuration file:
and change the line:
And save the file. To start ClamAV use:
freshclamservice clamav-daemon start
The following warning can be ignored on the first run of freshclam as we start the ClamAV daemn after we updated the database.
WARNING: Clamd was NOT notified: Can't connect to clamd through /var/run/clamav/clamd.ctl: No such file or directory
7.1 Install Metronome XMPP Server (optional)
The Metronome XMPP Server provides an XMPP chat server. This step is optional, if you do not need a chat server, then you can skip this step. No other ISPConfig functions depend on this software.
Install the following packages with apt.
apt-get install git lua5.1 liblua5.1-0-dev lua-filesystem libidn11-dev libssl-dev lua-zlib lua-expat lua-event lua-bitop lua-socket lua-sec luarocks luarocks
luarocks install lpc
Add a shell user for Metronome.
adduser --no-create-home --disabled-login --gecos 'Metronome' metronome
Download Metronome to the /opt directory and compile it.
cd /opt; git clone https://github.com/maranda/metronome.git metronomecd ./metronome; ./configure --ostype=debian --prefix=/usrmakemake install
Metronome has now be installed to /opt/metronome.